Everyone knows that diamond is considered to be the hardest substance on our planet. Although if you influence on the diamond with temperature over 1405 degrees Fahrenheit that is equal to 763 degrees Celsius then it will fuse. During this reaction carbon dioxide is released in small amount.
The initial material for production of diamonds is uncut diamonds. It is the natural mineral of rough form but it is not less mystical then glared diamond which is got from it after cutting. All this is due to unique features of uncut diamonds: hardness, wear resistance, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency, high index of refraction and strong dispersion, chemical and radiation stability.
Long ago diamond was considered to be miraculous and powerful talisman. It was suggested that the man who wore a diamond kept memory and joy mood and didn't know diseases of stomach, poison didn't affect them, he was brave and faithful. It's difficult to imagine that the most hard substance among known natural materials is one of the most polymorphous (differed in location of atoms in crystalline lattice) modifications of carbon, the another modification of which is graphite – the soft substance used as a grease and slate-pencil. In the uncut diamond with cube structure every atom of carbon is surrounded with the same four atoms which form the right tetrahedral pyramid named crystalline lattice.
One more mystery of nature is the origin of uncut diamonds. From geological and mineralogical point of view uncut diamonds were conceived and grew billions years ago in the depth of 150-200 kilometers by the influence of high temperature and pressure. As a rule the conditions for their growth were kept during several millions of years and then the increasing pressure pushed them nearer to the surface of the earth. After this diamonds stayed in these places (in “native” deposits) or were extracted from rock under the influence of wind and water and accumulated in secondary deposits.
Another point of view about the appearance of the carbon in the atmosphere and in the earth core is connected with the results of biochemical reactions. But as it is known life even in the most primitive form appeared much later then diamonds. Because of this the presence of two points of view about the origin of this mineral makes it more mystical.
From ancient times diamonds were considered to be the receptacle of magic power and were able to bring good luck and healing to his owner. The fact that some of gemstones were able to shine in the darkness caused mystical horror and admiration.
Our forefathers consider that gemstones were able to drive off demons, ghosts and even to treat psychic (mental) diseases. They gave the particular power in the fight, made their owner more n in noble and supported him in difficult life situations. According to ancient tradition jewelery put in every corner of the home defended the house from thunder and lightning.
Indians even suggested that the human soul can be embodied into diamond. Greek considered diamonds to be tears of the gods and ancient scientists suggested that gemstones divided in “men” and “women” and even were able to reproduce posterity. In the Middle Ages people believed that diamond was able to reconcile husband and wife because of this it was called the “stone of reconciliation”. And if the liar put the treasure in his mouth then this will help him to take away this vice.
Also these minerals were the first medical preparations and noble persons wore diamonds for protection from different poisons. At the same time the diamond's crumb was one of the most famous poisons. It is said that Turkish sultan Bayaset was poisoned by his son who added the precious powder in sultan's food. Catherine Medichi killed her enemies in such a way. In 1532 Pope Clement VII died suddenly after doctors simply surfeited him with drug from diamonds. Perhaps persistent hear-says were necessary in order the workers didn't try to steal these gemstones by hiding them in the mouth.
Originally India was the largest supplier of diamonds on the world's market. In India diamonds were found approximately before 800 years B.C. In XVIII century gemstones began to mine in Brazil and later diamond-placers were found in South Africa. Only in 1954 diamond-placers outnumbered all existed placers were discovered in Siberia. But the mine of diamonds is actively limited today in order their cost stay on the same level.